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All about osteoporosis maintaining bone health types of osteoporosis causes of osteoporosis osteoporosis risk factors risk factors for primary osteoporosis risk factors for secondary osteoporosis consequences of osteoporosis symptoms of osteoporosis diagnosis of osteoporosis osteoporosis treatments osteoporosis medications treatment for osteoporosis in men treatment for osteoporosis in women osteoporosis lifestyle therapy osteoporosis exercises osteoporosis diet prevention of osteoporosis osteoporosis and calcium osteoporosis and magnesium osteoporosis and vitamin D

What types of osteoporosis are there?

Osteoporosis can be classified in various ways based on diagnostic categories, etiology, or stage to help clinicians manage their patients. These classifications include the WHO classification, classification as either primary osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis. Primary osteoporosis is simply the form seen in older persons and women past menopause in

which bone loss is accelerated over that predicted for age and sex. Secondary osteoporosis results from a variety of identifiable conditions.

Primary Osteoporosis

There are two primary kinds of osteoporosis: type I osteoporosis and type II osteoporosis. The determining factor for the actual existence of osteoporosis, whether type I or type II, is the amount of calcium left in the skeleton and whether it places a person at risk for fracture. Someone who has exceptionally dense bones to begin with will probably never lose enough calcium to reach the point where osteoporosis occurs, whereas a person who has low bone density could easily develop osteoporosis despite losing only a relatively small amount of calcium.

Type I osteoporosis (postmenopausal osteoporosis) generally develops in women after menopause when the amount of estrogen in the body greatly decreases. This process leads to an increase in the resoprtion of bone (the bones loses substance). Type I osteoporosis occurs in 5% to 20% of women, most often between the ages of 50 and 75 because of the sudden postmenopausal decrease in estrogen levels, which results in a rapid depletion of calcium from the skeleton. It is associated with fractures that occur when the vertebrae compress together causing a collapse of the spine, and with fractures of the hip, wrist, or forearm caused by falls or minor accidents. Type 1 accounts for the significantly greater risk for osteoporosis in women than in men.

Type II osteoporosis (senile osteoporosis) typically happens after the age of 70 and affects women twice as frequently as men. Type II osteoporosis results when the process of resorption and formation of bone are no longer coordinated, and bone breakdown overcomes bone building. (This occurs with age in everyone to some degree.) Type II affects trabecular and cortical bone, often resulting in fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, proximal humerus, proximal tibia, and pelvis. It may result from age-related reduction in vitamin D synthesis or resistance to vitamin D activity (possibly mediated by decreased or unresponsive vitamin D receptors in some patients). In older women, types I and II often occur together.

Secondary Osteoporosis

Secondary osteoporosis is caused by other conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, certain diseases, or medications (such as corticosteroids). Details on the many other causes of secondary disease are included throughout this report. Secondary osteoporosis accounts for < 5% of osteoporosis cases. Causes include endocrine disease (eg, glucocorticoid excess, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, diabetes mellitus), drugs (eg, glucocorticosteroids, ethanol, dilantin, tobacco, barbiturates, heparin), and miscellaneous conditions (eg, immobilization, chronic renal failure, liver disease, malabsorption syndromes, chronic obstructive lung disease, RA, sarcoidosis, malignancy, prolonged weightlessness as found in space flight).

More information on osteoporosis

What is osteoporosis? - Osteoporosis is a thinning and weakening of the bones, usually associated with the aging process. Osteoporosis is a disease, often with no detectable symptoms.
Building and maintaining skeletal health - Factors involved in building and maintaining skeletal health are adequate nutrition and body weight, exposure to sex hormones at puberty, and physical activity.
What types of osteoporosis are there? - Osteoporosis can be classified in various ways based on diagnostic categories, etiology. Osteoporosis can be classified as either primary osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis.
What causes osteoporosis? - Osteoporosis is related to the loss of bone mass that occurs as part of the natural process of aging. Osteoporosis results when there is excess bone loss without adequate replacement.
What are the risk factors for osteoporosis? - Many disorders are associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is far more prevalent in women after menopause due to the loss of the hormone estrogen.
What're the risk factors for primary osteoporosis? - Risk factors for primary osteoporosis include age, gender, race, figure type, lifestyle, diet, and lack of sunlight.
What're the risk factors for secondary osteoporosis? - Risk factors for secondary osteoporosis include genetic disorders, hypogonadal states, endocrine disorders,hematologic disorders, nutritional deficiencies, drugs.
What are the consequences of osteoporosis? - Consequences due to osteoporosis are increased risk of fracture with minor trauma, frequency of traumatic events from lifting and bending impact.
What are the symptoms of osteoporosis? - Patients with uncomplicated osteoporosis may be asymptomatic or may have pain in the bones or muscles, particularly of the back. Osteoporosis becomes apparent in dramatic fashion.
How is osteoporosis diagnosed? - The diagnosis of osteoporosis is usually made by your doctor using a combination of a complete medical history and physical examination.
What're the treatments for osteoporosis? - Treatment for osteoporosis includes eating a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, getting regular exercise, and taking medication to reduce bone loss and increase bone thickness.
What osteoporosis medications (drugs) are available? - Medications (drugs) to cure osteoporosis include bisphosphanates (Fosamax), calcitonin (Miacalcin), raloxifene, estrogen, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).
How to treat osteoporosis in men? - Alendronate and teriparatide have been approved to treat osteoporosis in men. Calcitonin may work in men, treatment with testosterone appears to increase bone density.
How to treat osteoporosis in women? - The non-hormonal bisphosphonate drugs, alendronate and risedronate prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene is approved for preventing and treating osteoporosis.
What lifestyle changes can help osteoporosis? - Alcohol consumption should also be kept within safe limits. Supplements of calcium plus vitamin D may help maintain bone density. Limiting sodium and avoiding junk food.
What osteoporosis exercises are suggested? - Exercise is very important for slowing the progression of osteoporosis. Taking regular exercise is the single most important action improve the strength of their bones.
What osteoporosis diet is suggested? - A good calcium intake is essential throughout life for healthy bones. Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium from the intestines. Reducing salt may be useful for osteoporosis patients.
What can be done to prevent osteoporosis? - For prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, patients should be encouraged to stop smoking, limit alcohol consumption and perform weight-bearing exercise.
Osteoporosis and calcium - Calcium could alter the physical-chemical properties of the bone mineral. The daily recommended dietary calcium intake varies by age, sex, and menopausal status.
Osteoporosis and magnesium - Magnesium supplementation is as important as calcium supplementation in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis and vitamin D - Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract and is the essential companion to calcium in maintaining strong bones to prevent osteoporosis.
Bone, joint, & muscle disorders

Topics in bone, joint, and muscle disorders

Bone diseases
Bone tumors
Bone cancer
Muscle diseases
Spine (neck and back) disorders
Dupuytren's contracture
Plantar fasciitis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Septic arthritis (infectious Arthritis)
Psoriatic arthritis
Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis)
Ankylosing spondylitis
Gout (gouty arthritis)

All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005,, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005