What're the risk factors for osteoporosis?
Although advanced age is a well-known risk factor for both men and women, the disease is far more prevalent in women after menopause due to the loss of the hormone estrogen. Other risk factors for women include an early or premature menopause, either naturally or by surgical removal of the ovaries, with no hormone replacement therapy; exercising so strenuously that one's menstrual period stops; having a small body frame; excessive use of alcohol; cigarette smoking; a
diet low in calcium; and a diet low in protein. For men, low levels of the male hormone testosterone increase risk, as does chronic alcoholism. Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone), heparin, and phenytoin (Dilantin©) and a family history of osteoporosis also increase the risk for osteoporosis in both men and women. Certain medical conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and celiac disease can cause osteoporosis as well.
Primary Osteoporosis: Predictors of low bone mass include being female, increasing age, estrogen deficiency, white race, low weight and body mass index (BMI), family history of osteoporosis, smoking, and prior history of fractures. Consumption of modest alcohol and caffeine-containing beverages are inconsistent risk factors. Level of exercise as children and adolescents are inconsistent and thus are not proven risk factor. Prolonged periods of immobility, early menopause, and low endogenous levels of estrogen appear to play a significant role.
Secondary Osteoporosis: Many disorders are associated with increased risk of osteoporosis: it occurs in 30-60% of cases, such as hypogonadism, (lack of testosterone or estrogens by the testes or ovaries), endocrine disorders, genetic disorders, hematologic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases (such as celiac disease), connective tissue disorders, nutritional deficiency, alcoholism, end stage renal disease, and congestive heart failure. Drug use, such as corticosteroids can have a profound affect. In one study, 10 mg/d of prednisone for 20 weeks resulted in an 8% loss of BMD in the spine. Even inhaled or locally applied corticosteroids may lead to bone loss.
Nutrition: Adequate calcium intake is most important in achieving optimal bone density. The recommended doses of calcium are 800 mg /d age 3-8 and 1300 mg age 9-17. It has been estimated that only 25% of boys and 10% of girls age 9-17 reach these optimal levels. There is a national need to implement adequate calcium intake throughout life, but especially early in life when bone mass is accumulating, during periods of stress, during pregnancy, and especially during lactation, and in old age when calcium absorption is erratic. Adequate Vitamin D intake, i.e. 600-800 IU/day is most important to assure adequate calcium absorption, especially when exposure to ultraviolet light is inadequate. The dietary calcium intake is often underestimated.
More information on osteoporosis
What is osteoporosis? - Osteoporosis is a thinning and weakening of the bones, usually associated with the aging process. Osteoporosis is a disease, often with no detectable symptoms.
Building and maintaining skeletal health - Factors involved in building and maintaining skeletal health are adequate nutrition and body weight, exposure to sex hormones at puberty, and physical activity.
What types of osteoporosis are there? - Osteoporosis can be classified in various ways based on diagnostic categories, etiology. Osteoporosis can be classified as either primary osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis.
What causes osteoporosis? - Osteoporosis is related to the loss of bone mass that occurs as part of the natural process of aging. Osteoporosis results when there is excess bone loss without adequate replacement.
What are the risk factors for osteoporosis? - Many disorders are associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is far more prevalent in women after menopause due to the loss of the hormone estrogen.
What're the risk factors for primary osteoporosis? - Risk factors for primary osteoporosis include age, gender, race, figure type, lifestyle, diet, and lack of sunlight.
What're the risk factors for secondary osteoporosis? - Risk factors for secondary osteoporosis include genetic disorders, hypogonadal states, endocrine disorders,hematologic disorders, nutritional deficiencies, drugs.
What are the consequences of osteoporosis? - Consequences due to osteoporosis are increased risk of fracture with minor trauma, frequency of traumatic events from lifting and bending impact.
What are the symptoms of osteoporosis? - Patients with uncomplicated osteoporosis may be asymptomatic or may have pain in the bones or muscles, particularly of the back. Osteoporosis becomes apparent in dramatic fashion.
How is osteoporosis diagnosed? - The diagnosis of osteoporosis is usually made by your doctor using a combination of a complete medical history and physical examination.
What're the treatments for osteoporosis? - Treatment for osteoporosis includes eating a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, getting regular exercise, and taking medication to reduce bone loss and increase bone thickness.
What osteoporosis medications (drugs) are available? - Medications (drugs) to cure osteoporosis include bisphosphanates (Fosamax), calcitonin (Miacalcin), raloxifene, estrogen, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).
How to treat osteoporosis in men? - Alendronate and teriparatide have been approved to treat osteoporosis in men. Calcitonin may work in men, treatment with testosterone appears to increase bone density.
How to treat osteoporosis in women? - The non-hormonal bisphosphonate drugs, alendronate and risedronate prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene is approved for preventing and treating osteoporosis.
What lifestyle changes can help osteoporosis? - Alcohol consumption should also be kept within safe limits. Supplements of calcium plus vitamin D may help maintain bone density. Limiting sodium and avoiding junk food.
What osteoporosis exercises are suggested? - Exercise is very important for slowing the progression of osteoporosis. Taking regular exercise is the single most important action improve the strength of their bones.
What osteoporosis diet is suggested? - A good calcium intake is essential throughout life for healthy bones. Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium from the intestines. Reducing salt may be useful for osteoporosis patients.
What can be done to prevent osteoporosis? - For prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, patients should be encouraged to stop smoking, limit alcohol consumption and perform weight-bearing exercise.
Osteoporosis and calcium - Calcium could alter the physical-chemical properties of the bone mineral. The daily recommended dietary calcium intake varies by age, sex, and menopausal status.
Osteoporosis and magnesium - Magnesium supplementation is as important as calcium supplementation in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis and vitamin D - Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract and is the essential companion to calcium in maintaining strong bones to prevent osteoporosis.