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All about muscular dystrophy types of muscular dystrophy causes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy causes of Becker's muscular dystrophy symptoms of Becker's muscular dystrophy causes of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy symptoms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy causes of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy symptoms of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy causes of myotonic dystrophy symptoms of myotonic dystrophy diagnosis of muscular dystrophy treatment for muscular dystrophy

What types of muscular dystrophy are there?

Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue, with or without the breakdown of nerve tissue. There are nine types of muscular dystrophy, but in each type there is an eventual loss of strength, increasing disability, and possible deformity. There are several major forms of muscular dystrophy

that affect teens, each of which weakens different muscle groups in various ways.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a defective gene (segment of DNA) inherited on the X chromosome. It primarily affects boys and is the most severe type. It is the most severe form of muscular dystrophy. DMD occurs in about 1 in 3,500 male births, and affects approximately 8,000 boys and young men in the United States. A milder form occurs in very few female carriers.

Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD): Becker-type muscular dystrophy is linked to the X chromosome, affects dystrophin production, and occurs in males. However, the illness is about 10 times rarer than Duchenne, and it produces milder symptoms. Some people seem to have a form of disease that is intermediate in severity between Duchenne and Becker-type. BMD affects older boys and young men, following a milder course than DMD. BMD occurs in about 1 in 30,000 male births.

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH): Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy occurs in both sexes, and it often strikes several members of the same family. However, because the symptoms vary in intensity, family members may have such mild forms of the illness that they are unaware of any muscle problems. Weakness of the facial muscles and the shoulder is typical. FSH, also known as Landouzy-Dejerine disease, begins in late childhood to early adulthood and affects both men and women, causing weakness in the muscles of the face, shoulders, and upper arms.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD): EDMD affects young boys, causing contractures and weakness in the calves, weakness in the shoulders and upper arms, and problems in the way electrical impulses travel through the heart to make it beat (heart conduction defects). Fewer than 300 cases of EDMD have been identified.

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD): LGMD begins in late childhood to early adulthood and affects both men and women, causing weakness in the muscles around the hips and shoulders. It is the most variable of the muscular dystrophies, and there are several different forms of the disease now recognized. Many people with suspected LGMD have probably been misdiagnosed in the past, and therefore the prevalence of the disease is difficult to estimate. The number of people affected in the United States may be in the low thousands.

Myotonic dystrophy: Myotonic muscular dystrophy can occur in both sexes and is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, with symptoms often starting in adolescence. Also known as Steinert's disease, it affects both men and women, causing generalized weakness first seen in the face, feet, and hands. It is accompanied by the inability to relax the affected muscles (myotonia). Symptoms may begin from birth through adulthood. It is the most common form of muscular dystrophy, affecting more than 30,000 people in the United States.

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD): OPMD affects adults of both sexes, causing weakness in the eye muscles and throat. It is most common among French Canadian families in Quebec, and in Spanish-American families in the southwestern United States.

Distal muscular dystrophy (DD): DD begins in middle age or later, causing weakness in the muscles of the feet and hands. It is most common in Sweden, and rare in other parts of the world.

Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD): CMD is present from birth, results in generalized weakness, and usually progresses slowly. A subtype, called Fukuyama CMD, also involves mental retardation. Both are rare; Fukuyama CMD is more common in Japan.

More information on muscular dystrophy

What is muscular dystrophy? - Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue.
What types of muscular dystrophy are there? - There are nine types of muscular dystrophy including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.
What causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)? - Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rapidly progressive form of muscular dystrophy. It is caused by a defective gene.
What're the symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy? - Symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy include progressive muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis, mental impairment or heart problems.
What causes Becker's muscular dystrophy? - Becker muscular dystrophy is a type of dystrophinopathy which include a spectrum of muscle disease caused by mutations in the DMD gene.
What're the symptoms of Becker's muscular dystrophy? - Symptoms of Becker-type muscular dystrophy are similar to those of Duchenne dystrophy, but they are milder and begin later.
What causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy? - Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder, it may be inherited as a dominant, recessive, or X-linked genetic defect.
What're the symptoms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy? - Symptoms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy include progressive muscle weakness in the shoulders and hips, together with breathing problems.
What causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy? - Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy involves progressive muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue.
What're the symptoms of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy? - Symptoms of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy may begin during infancy, late childhood, or early adulthood.
What causes myotonic dystrophy? - Myotonic dystrophy is caused by an inherited gene defect. Myotonic dystrophy is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy.
What're the symptoms of myotonic dystrophy? - Symptoms of myotonic dystrophy include muscle weakness and wasting, cataracts, heart problems, constipation and other digestive problems.
How is muscular dystrophy diagnosed? - Diagnosis of muscular dystrophy involves a medical history and physical exam to determine the distribution of symptoms and to rule out other causes.
What's the treatment for muscular dystrophy? - Treatments for muscular include decreased mobility and dexterity, contractures, scoliosis, heart defects, and respiratory weaknesses.
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